Turkey has a unique geographic position, lying partly in Asia and partly in Europe at the crossroads of the Balkans, Caucasus, Middle East, and eastern Mediterranean. Istanbul is the largest city in Turkey and the only city in the world straddled on two continents, across the Bosphorus strait.

Vast areas of Turkey are mountainous, including the Lycian Way in the south west of the country, which takes its name from the ancient civilization that once ruled over this area. Adventure Alternative offer guided trekking holidays on what is one of the world’s greatest long-distance trails through villages unchanged by progress and past ancient ruins along the alluring Turquoise Coast.

Key Facts

Capital Ankara
Government Republic 
Population ~ 84 million (110 per sq km) 
Area 783,562 sq km (about 3.2 x the size of the UK)
Borders Georgia, Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan, Iran, Iraq Syria and the Mediterranean and Aegean Sea
Highest peak Mount Ararat (5137m) (39.7024° N, 44.2991° E) 
Currency Turkish lira (TRY)
Language Turkish (some English in cities and tourist areas)
Religion Islam (predominantly Sunni Muslim)
Coronavirus Latest Statistics


Map of Turkey
Map of Turkey

Turkey has a fascinating ancient history and rich culture with an abundance of natural beauty and exceptional landmarks in all corners of the country.

Ankara became the new Turkish capital upon the establishment of the Republic in 1923, succeeding in this role the former Turkish capital Istanbul (Constantinople) following the fall of the Ottoman Empire.

Most of Turkey is on a peninsula in south-western Asia known as Anatolia or Asia Minor. The Black Sea lies north of Turkey. Georgia, Armenia, and Iran are to the east. Iraq, Syria, and the Mediterranean Sea lie to the south and the Aegean Sea, Greece, and Bulgaria lie to the west.

Best time to visit

When to visit Turkey depends on what you’re interested in, but generally the summers are very hot and the winters are very cold. April, May, September and October are pleasantly warm, so are typically the best times to visit Turkey for climbs and treks.

Getting to Turkey

There are currently 33 airports in Turkey offering domestic and international flights – Istanbul (IST) would be the main airport and the hub for Turkish Airlines – Flights from the UK to Istanbul take around four hours. Dalaman Airport (DLM) is about 45 kilometres from the city of Fethiye, the starting point for our Lycian Way trek. There are normally direct flights from the likes of Gatwick, Stansted, Manchester, Aberdeen, Birmingham, Bristol and Glasgow all year round.

Visas for Turkey

There are no visas required for entry by British and most EU passport holders for trips up to 90 days. Other nationals should check with their nearest embassy or on Turkey’s e-Visa system where applications can be made. Passports should be valid for six months beyond the date of entry.

Health requirements for entry to Turkey

Hepatitis A and Typhoid are recommended, Rabies and Hepatitis B may be recommended in some cases. A Yellow Fever certificate or Anti malarial tablets are not required. You should also ensure you are up-to-date on routine vaccines (MMR, Diphtheria, Tetanus, Polio, Chickenpox and if required, your yearly flu shot).

There is a good network of hospitals in all cities and across Turkey, and we recommend comprehensive medical insurance for travellers.

All water used for drinking, brushing teeth or making ice should be boiled or treated, or bottled. Pasteurised dairy products are safe for consumption, although you should avoid soft-cooked eggs, and only eat well cooked fish and meat.


The Turkish Lira is the currency but you will normally get a better rate in Turkey so if you’re travelling with cash bring Sterling, Euros or US Dollars.

Mastercard and Visa credit / debit cards are accepted in the cities in most medium to large hotels and shops and you can withdraw cash from ATMs in most places, even small towns. Outside the main cities it is best to expect to pay in local cash.

Power supply

Turkey operates on 220 volts, 50 Hz, with round-prong European-style plugs that fit into recessed wall sockets /points. There are two associated plug types (C and F). Plug type C is the plug which has two round pins and plug type F is the plug which has two round pins with two earth clips on the side. Larger hotels often provide North American-style 120 volts, 60 Hz flush-mounted sockets (points) for North American flat-prong plugs.